There are two types of UV rays: UV-A and UV-B. Over time, the effects of UV rays may help cause a number of eye problems.

Types of UV Rays ? Types of UV Rays

UV-A
can hurt your central vision. It can damage the macula, a part of the retina at the back of your eye.

UV-B
The front part of your eye (the cornea and the lens) absorbs most UV-B rays, but these rays may cause even more damage to your eyes than UV-A rays.

What eye problems can UV rays cause? ? What eye problems can UV rays cause?

Macular Degeneration

UV rays may lead to macular degeneration, a leading cause of vision loss for older Americans.

Cataract

UV rays, especially UV-B rays, may also cause some kinds of cataracts. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens, the part of the eye that focuses the light we see.

Pterygium

Another UV-related problem is a growth called pterygium. This growth begins on the white of the eye and may involve the cornea. Eventually, the growth may block vision. It is more common in people who work outside in the sun and wind.

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer around the eyelids is also linked to prolonged UV exposure.

Corneal Sunburn

Corneal sunburn, called photokeratitis, is the result of high short-term exposure to UV-B rays. Long hours at the beach or skiing without proper eye protection can cause this problem. It can be very painful and may cause temporary vision loss.

How to Protect Your Eyes from UV Rays

You can protect your eyes from UV rays in two important ways:

  1. Know the dangers of UV rays.
  2. Wear proper eye protection and hats that block UV rays.

UV rays can come from many directions. They radiate directly from the sun, but they are also reflected from the ground, from water, snow, sand and other bright surfaces.

Use eyewear that absorbs UV rays and wear a brimmed hat or cap ? Use eyewear that absorbs UV rays and wear a brimmed hat or cap

A wide brimmed hat or cap will block about half of UV rays. A brimmed hat or cap can also limit UV rays that hit the eyes from above or around glasses.

Eyewear that absorbs UV rays gives you the most protection. All types of eyewear, including prescription and non-prescription glasses, contact lenses and lens implants, should absorb UV-A and UV-B rays. For UV protection in everyday eyewear, there are several options like UV-blocking lens materials, coatings and photochromic lenses. UV protection does not cost a lot of money and does not get in the way of seeing clearly.

Who’s at Risk for Eye Damage from the Sun

Yes, everyone (including children) is at risk for eye damage from UV radiation that can lead to vision loss. Any factor that increases the amount of time you spend in the sun will increase your risk.

People who work or play in the sun for long periods of time are at the greatest risk.

The risk of sun related eye problems is higher for people who:

  • spend long hours in the sun
  • have had cataract surgery* or have certain retina disorders
  • are on certain medicines, such as tetracycline, sulfa drugs, birth control pills, diuretics and tranquilizers that increase the eye’s sensitivity to light.

*If you have had cataract surgery, you may be more at risk of injury from sunlight unless the artificial lens you received during surgery absorbs UV rays.